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The Shah dynasty was a family that ruled Nepal from 1769 to 2008. Originating from the Nepali-speaking Gorkha Kingdom in what is now west-central Nepal, in the seventeenth century the Shah kings unified the area of present-day Nepal, defeating the Malla-dynasty Newar kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley in 1768–9. Ruling in Kathmandu as Hindu monarchs, the Shah dynasty fought several wars against the British and Qing empires. The monarchy was abolished in 2008, and Nepal was declared a republic.