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Daoism refers both to a philosophical tradition and to an organized religion. In ancient China, texts attributed to semi-mythical figures like Laozi (sixth–fourth century BCE) and Zhuangzi (369–286 BCE) contained mystical speculation about the “way” (Dao) that brings humans into harmony with heaven, as well as explorations of philosophical and political relativism. From the second century onward, a ritual-exorcistic tradition appeared that called itself “the teachings of the Dao” (Ch. Daojiao). Mutually influencing with Chinese Buddhism, this tradition grew into an organized religion with monasteries, a priesthood, a canon of ritual texts, and a complex pantheon of gods organized into a bureaucracy modeled after the Chinese state which govern the natural world.