In embossing, sheets of soft, malleable metals, such as gold, silver, lead, or copper, are hammered over designed forms (matrices) of wood and other materials, heated for malleability (tempered), and hammered again until they assume the intended form. Large, complex sculptures are created in parts and later assembled with the help of fasteners (rivets) and soldering, or by fusing them together. Some small parts can be cast as well. Artists employ chiseling and sometimes chemically coat the surface with gold, or gilding.
Unfired clay remains the most commonly used material for sculpture in the Himalayas, from large statues to small tsatsas.
Stone and wood are used by artisans to create three-dimensional images in Himalayan cultural regions.
The invention of printing can be directly connected to Buddhism and the need to reproduce religious texts and simple pictures of the Buddha.
Paper was used widely as a media for copying Buddhist texts and image making.